# Добавить адрес на интерфейс. После перезагрузки он потеряется.
ip addr add 10.1.0.1/24 dev eth0

Пример файла /etc/network/interfaces

# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
    iface eth0 inet static
    address 46.46.46.162
    netmask 255.255.254.0
    gateway 46.46.46.1
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 5.5.5.5

iface eth0 inet6 static
    address 2a00:b700:0:116::8f
    netmask 64
    gateway 2a00:b700::1
    dns-nameservers 2a00:b700::200 2a00:b700:1::200

# алиас
auto eth0:0
iface eth0:0 inet static
    address 46.17.46.163
    netmask 255.255.254.0

iface eth0:0 inet6 static
    address 2a00:b700:0:116::1:8f
    netmask 48

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